Carbon electrode sensitivity enhancement for lead detection using polypyrrole, ionic liquid, and nafion composite

Zanu Saputra, Robeth Viktoria Manurung, Aminuddin Debataraja, Muhammad Iqbal Nugraha, Tien-Fu Lu


This paper concerns enhancing a lead detection sensor using a combination of polypyrrole (PPy), Nafion (N), and ionic liquid (IL) with thick-film or screen-printing technology on sensitive material-based carbon electrodes. Electrode characterization using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was conducted to see the morphology of sensitive materials, showing that the spherical particles were distributed evenly on the electrode surface. Analysis using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) shows that the element's atomic composition is 84.92 %, 8.81 %, 6.26 %, and 0.01 % for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and bismuth, respectively. Potentiostat measurement with the ambient temperature of 25 °C on a standard lead solution with concentration ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/l yields an average output voltage ranging from 2.16 to 2.27 V. It can be concluded that the sensor is able to detect lead with a sensitivity of 0.21 V in each addition of solution concentration (mg/l) and give an 84 % concentration contribution to the voltage.


lead detection; thick film; polypyrrole; nafion; ionic liquid.

Full Text:



Y. Tu, S. Ju, and P. Wang, “Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, lead, and cadmium in Gastrodiae rhizoma samples after preconcentration using magnetic solid-phase extraction,” Spectrosc. Lett., vol. 49, no. 4, 2016.

S. Hamida, L. Ouabdesslam, A. F. Ladjel, M. Escudero, and J. Anzano, “Determination of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in Pilchard Sardines from the Bay of Boumerdés by atomic absorption pectrometry,” Anal. Lett., vol. 51, no. 16, 2018.

B. Debnath, W. Singh, and K. Manna, “Sources and toxicological effects of lead on human health,” Indian J. Med. Spec., vol. 10, no. 2, 2019.

É. M. M. Flores et al., “Determination of Cd and Pb in medicinal plants using solid sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry,” Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., vol. 89, no. 2, 2009.

E. L. Silva and P. dos S. Roldan, “Simultaneous flow injection preconcentration of lead and cadmium using cloud point extraction and determination by atomic absorption spectrometry,” J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 161, no. 1, 2009.

B. Sisay, E. Debebe, A. Meresa, and T. Abera, “Analysis of cadmium and lead using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in roadside soils of Jimma town,” J. Anal. Pharm. Res., vol. 8, no. 4, 2019.

Z. Su et al., “Thiol-ene chemistry guided preparation of thiolated polymeric nanocomposite for anodic stripping voltammetric analysis of Cd2+ and Pb 2+,” Analyst, vol. 138, no. 4, 2013.

M. Ghanei-Motlagh and M. Baghayeri, “Determination of trace Tl(I) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a novel modified carbon paste electrode,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 167, no. 6, 2020.

Y. Zhang, C. Li, Y. Su, W. Mu, and X. Han, “Simultaneous detection of trace Cd(II) and Pb(II) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a bismuth oxycarbide/nafion electrode,” Inorg. Chem. Commun., vol. 111, 2020.

Z. D. Anastasiadou, I. Sipaki, P. D. Jannakoudakis, and S. T. Girousi, “Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (swasv) for the determination of ecotoxic metals, using a bismuth-film electrode,” Analytical Letters, vol. 44, no. 5. 2011.

S. K. Pandey, S. Sachan, and S. K. Singh, “Ultra-trace sensing of cadmium and lead by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry using ionic liquid modified graphene oxide,” Mater. Sci. Energy Technol., vol. 2, no. 3, 2019.

S. E. D. Bahinting et al., “Bismuth film-coated gold ultramicroelectrode array for simultaneous quantification of pb(Ii) and cd(ii) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry,” Sensors, vol. 21, no. 5, 2021.

E. Nagles, V. Arancibia, C. Rojas, and R. Segura, “Nafionmercury coated film electrode for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of lead and cadmium in the presence of pyrogallol red,” Talanta, vol. 99, 2012.

X. Liu, K. Venkatraman, and R. Akolkar, “Communication—electrochemical sensor concept for the detection of lead contamination in water utilizing lead underpotential deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 165, no. 2, 2018.

Y. Dai and C. C. Liu, “A simple, cost-effective sensor for detecting lead ions inwater using under-potential deposited bismuth sub-layer with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV),” Sensors (Switzerland), vol. 17, no. 5, 2017.

J. Lara, J. F. Torres, O. G. Beltrán, E. Nagles, and J. Hurtado, “Simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium by stripping voltammetry using in-situ mercury film glassy carbon electrode coated with nafion-macrocyclic ester,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., vol. 12, no. 8, 2017.

I. Albalawi, A. Hogan, H. Alatawi, and E. Moore, “A sensitive electrochemical analysis for cadmium and lead based on Nafion-Bismuth film in a water sample,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res., vol. 34, 2021.

B. Fotovvati, N. Namdari, and A. Dehghanghadikolaei, “On coating techniques for surface protection: A review,” Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, vol. 3, no. 1. 2019.

R. I. M. Asri, W. S. W. Harun, M. A. Hassan, S. A. C. Ghani, and Z.

Buyong, “A review of hydroxyapatite-based coating techniques: Sol-gel and electrochemical depositions on biocompatible metals,” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 57. 2016.

A. M. Ashrafi and K. Vytřas, “Codeposited antimony-bismuth film carbon paste electrodes for electrochemical stripping determination of trace heavy metals,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., vol. 8, no. 2, 2013.

Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Y. Zhou, J. Chen, and C. Wang, “Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Pb ion at a montmorillonites/polyaniline nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem., vol. 717–718, 2014.

W. Gao, W. W. Tjiu, J. Wei, and T. Liu, “Highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose and H2O2 sensor based on Ni(OH)2/electroreduced graphene oxide-Multiwalled carbon nanotube film modified glass carbon electrode,” Talanta, vol. 120, 2014.

O. Schlesinger and L. Alfonta, “Encapsulation of microorganisms, enzymes, and redox mediators in graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 609, 2018.

K. E. Toghill, G. G. Wildgoose, A. Moshar, C. Mulcahy, and R. G. Compton, “Fabrication and characterization of a bismuth nanoparticle modified boron doped diamond electrode and its application to the simultaneous determination of cadmium(II)and lead(II),” Electroanalysis, vol. 20, no. 16, 2008.

O. Vajdle et al., “Use of carbon paste electrode and modified by gold nanoparticles for selected macrolide antibiotics determination as standard and in pharmaceutical preparations,” J. Electroanal. Chem., vol. 873, 2020.

S. Chaiyo, E. Mehmeti, K. Žagar, W. Siangproh, O. Chailapakul, and K. Kalcher, “Electrochemical sensors for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium and lead using a Nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified screen-printed carbon electrode,” Anal. Chim. Acta, vol. 918, 2016.

B. C. Lourencao, R. F. Brocenschi, R. A. Medeiros, O. FatibelloFilho, and R. C. Rocha-Filho, “Analytical applications of electrochemically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrodes,” ChemElectroChem, vol. 7, no. 6. 2020.

M. Kowalcze and M. Jakubowska, “Voltammetric determination of nicotine in electronic cigarette liquids using a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE),” Diam. Relat. Mater., vol. 103, 2020.

A. Paukpol and J. Jakmunee, “Bismuth coated screen-printed electrode platform for greener anodic stripping voltammetric determination of cadmium and lead,” Chiang Mai Univ. J. Nat. Sci., vol. 15, no. 1, 2016.

Z. Lu, J. Zhang, W. Dai, X. Lin, J. Ye, and J. Ye, “A screen-printed carbon electrode modified with a bismuth film and gold nanoparticles for simultaneous stripping voltammetric determination of Zn(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II),” Microchim. Acta, vol. 184, no. 12, 2017.

S.-J. Lee, N. Muthuchamy, A.-I. Gopalan, and K.-P. Lee, “New Nafion/conducting polymer composite for membrane application,” Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Advanced Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, 2016.

T. H. Le, Y. Kim, and H. Yoon, “Electrical and electrochemical properties of conducting polymers,” Polymers, vol. 9, no. 4. 2017.

G. G. Gagliardi, A. Ibrahim, D. Borello, and A. El-Kharouf, “Composite polymers development and application for polymer electrolyte membrane technologies-a review,” Molecules, vol. 25, no. 7. 2020.

S. C. Hamm et al., “Ionic conductivity enhancement of sputtered gold nanoparticle-in-ionic liquid electrolytes,” J. Mater. Chem. A, vol. 2, no. 3, 2014.

T. Zheng et al., “Synthesis and ionic conductivity of a novel ionic liquid polymer electrolyte,” J. Polym. Res., vol. 21, no. 2, 2014.

R. A. Segura, J. A. Pizarro, M. P. Oyarzun, A. D. Castillo, K. J. Díaz, and A. B. Placencio, “Determination of lead and cadmium in water samples by adsorptive stripping voltammetry using a bismuth film/1-nitroso-2-napthol/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrode,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., vol. 11, no. 2, 2016.

M. Schalenbach, T. Hoefner, P. Paciok, M. Carmo, W. Lueke, and D. Stolten, “Gas Permeation through Nafion. Part 1: Measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. C, vol. 119, no. 45, 2015.

L. Xiao et al., “Simultaneous detection of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry at a nitrogendoped microporous carbon/Nafion/bismuth-film electrode,” Electrochim. Acta, vol. 143, 2014.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.