Bi-fluid cooling effect on electrical characteristics of flexible photovoltaic panel

Nurul Shahirah Rukman, Ahmad Fudholi, Putri Adia Utari, Cheku Nurul Aisyah, Andri Joko Purwanto, Rakhmad Indra Pramana, Erie Martides, Ant. Ardath Kristi, Nilofar Asim, Mohammad Hossein Yazdi, Hazim Moria, Husam Abdulrasool Hasan, Zeki Ahmed Darwish


A photovoltaic (PV) system integrated with a bi-fluid cooling mechanism, which is known as photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system, was investigated. The electrical characteristics of flexible solar panel were evaluated for PV and PV with bi-fluid (air and water) cooling system. The integration of monocrystalline flexible solar panel into both systems was tested under a fixed solar radiation of 800 W/m2. A total of 0.04–0.10 kg/s of air flow was utilised in PV with cooling system with a fixed water mass flow rate of 0.025 kg/s. The efficiencies of flexible panel for PV and PV with cooling system were explored. For PV with bi-fluid flow, the highest obtained efficiency of module was 15.95% when 0.08 kg/s of air and 0.025 kg/s of water were allowed to flow through the cooling system. Compared with PV without cooling mechanism, the highest efficiency of module was 13.35% under same solar radiation. Current–voltage and power graphs were also plotted to present the electrical characteristics (current, voltage and power) generated by both systems.


PV efficiency; PV current; PV voltage; PV power; I–V–P curves

Full Text:



N. S. Rukman, A. Fudholi, Ivan Taslim, Merita Ayu Indrianti, Intan Noviantari Manyoe, Overview on recent photovoltaic module cooling methods: advances PVT systems. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (IJECE) 10 (1) (2020), 15-21.

N. S. Rukman, A. Fudholi, S.H. Zaidi, K. Sopian, Overview of Bifluid-based Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Systems. International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS) 9 (4) (2018), 1912-1917.

M. Y. Othman, S. A. Hamid, M. A. S. Tabook, K. Sopian, M. H. Roslan, and Z. Ibarahim, Performance analysis of PV/T Combi with water and air heating system: An experimental study. Renewable Energy 86,(2016) 716–722, 2016.

R. Kumar and M. A. Rosen, A critical review of photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors for air heating. Applied Energy 88 (11) (2011) 3603–3614.

P. Ooshaksaraei, K. Sopian, S. H. Zaidi, and R. Zulkifli, Performance of four air-based photovoltaic thermal collectors configurations with bifacial solar cells. Renewable Energy 102 (2016) 279–293.

J. Cremers, I. Mitina, N. Palla, F. Klotz, X. Jobard, and U. Eicker, Experimental analyses of different PVT collector designs for heating and cooling applications in buildings. Energy Procedia 78 (2015) 1889–1894.

A. Kumar, P. Baredar, and U. Qureshi, Historical and recent development of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) technologies,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review. 42 (2015) 1428–1436.

N.S. Nazri, A. Fudholi, B. Bakhtyar, C.H. Yen, A. Ibrahim, M.H. Ruslan, S. Mat, K. Sopian (2018), Energy economic analysis of photovoltaic–thermal-thermoelectric (PVT-TE) air collectors. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review. 92 (2018) 187-97.

N.S. Nazri, A. Fudholi, C.H. Yen, M. Mohammad, M.H. Ruslan, K. Sopian, Exergy and improvement potential of hybrid photovoltaic thermal/thermoelectric (PVT/TE) air collector. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review. 111 (2019), 132-144.

H.A. Hasan, K. Sopian, A. Fudholi, Photovoltaic thermal solar water collector designed with a jet collision system, Energy. 161 (2018) 412-424.

S.S.S. Baljit, H.-Y. Chan, V.A. Audwinto, S.A. Hamid, A. Fudholi, S.H. Zaidi, M.Y. Othman, K. Sopian, Mathematical modelling of a dual-fluid concentrating photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) solar collector, Renewable Energy. 114 (2017) 1258–1271. doi:10.1016/J.RENENE.2017.08.001.

A. Fudholi, M. Zohri, G.L Jin, A. Ibrahim, C.H. Yen, M.Y. Othman, M.H. Ruslan, K. Sopian, Energy and exergy analyses of photovoltaic thermal collector with ∇-groove, Solar Energy. 159 (2018) 742-750.

A. Fudholi, N.F.M. Razali, M.H. Yazdi, A. Ibrahim, M.H. Ruslan, M.Y. Othman, K. Sopian, TiO2/water-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector: Novel theoretical approach, Energy. 183 (2019) 305-314.

Y. Tripanagnostopoulos, Aspects and improvements of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar energy systems, Solar Energy. 81 (2007) 1117–1131. doi:10.1016/J.SOLENER.2007.04.002.

M.N. Abu Bakar, M. Othman, M. Hj Din, N.A. Manaf, H. Jarimi, Design concept and mathematical model of a bi-fluid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector, Renewable Energy. 67 (2014) 153–164.


M.Y. Othman, S.A. Hamid, M.A.S. Tabook, K. Sopian, M.H. Roslan, Z. Ibarahim, Performance analysis of PV/T Combi with water and air heating system: An experimental study, Renewable Energy. 86 (2016) 716–722.


Tubniyom, C., Jaideaw, W., Chatthaworn, R., Suksri, A., & Wongwuttanasatian, T. (2018). Effect of partial shading patterns and degrees of shading on Total Cross-Tied (TCT) photovoltaic array configuration. Energy Procedia, 153, 35-41.

A. Ibrahim, A. Fudholi, K. Sopian, M.Y. Othman, M.H. Ruslan. Efficiencies and improvement potential of building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPVT) system. Energy Conversion and Management. 77 (2014) 527-534.

C.N. Aisyah, A. Fudholi, M.Y. Othman, A. Ibrahim, M.H. Ruslan, K. Sopian, Efficiency of PV/T Collector using Spiral Thermal Absorber Design (Kecekapan Pengumpul PV/T menggunakan Pengumpul Terma Reka Bentuk Pilin), Sains Malaysiana. 47 (4) (2018) 853-859.

A. Fudholi, K. Sopian, M.H. Yazdi, M.H. Ruslan. A. Ibrahim, H.A. Kazem. Performance analysis of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) water collectors. Energy Conversion and Management. 78 (2014) 641-651.

N.F.M. Razali, A. Fudholi, M. Hafidz Ruslan, K. Sopian, Electrical characteristic of photovoltaic thermal collector with water-multiwalled carbon nanotube nanofluid flow, Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 13 (1) (2019) 324-330. doi:10.11591/ijeecs.v13.i1.pp324-330.

Buni, M. J., Al-Walie, A. A., & Al-Asadi, K. A. (2018). Effect of solar radiation on photovoltaic cells. International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science, 3(3), 47-51.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.