Implementation of a LiFePO4 battery charger for cell balancing application

Amin Amin, Kristian Ismail, Abdul Hapid


Cell imbalance has always happened in the series-connected battery. Series-connected battery needs to be balanced to maintain capacity and maximize the batteries lifespan. Cell balancing helps to dispart energy equally among battery cells. For active cell balancing, the use of a DC-DC converter module for cell balancing is quite common to achieve high efficiency, reliability, and high power density converter. This paper describes the implementation of a LiFePO4 battery charger based on the DC-DC converter module used for cell balancing application. A constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV) controller for the charger, which is a general charging method applied to the LiFePO4 battery, is presented for preventing overcharging when considering the nonlinear property of a LiFePO4 battery. The prototype is made up with an input voltage of 43V to 110V and the maximum output voltage of 3.75V, allowing to charge a LiFePO4 cell battery and balancing the battery pack with many cells from 15 to 30 cells. The goal is to have a LiFePO4 battery charger with an approximate power of 40W and the maximum output current of 10A. Experimental results on a 160AH LiFePO4 battery for some state of charge (SoC) shows that the maximum battery voltage has been limited at 3.77 volt and maximum charging current could reach up to 10.64 A. The results show that the charger can maintain battery voltage at the maximum reference voltage and avoid the LiFePO4 battery from overcharging.


cell balancing; constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV); DC-DC converter module; LiFePO4 battery

Full Text:



A. Al-Haj Hussein and I. Batarseh, “A review of charging algorithms for nickel and lithium battery chargers,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 830– 838, 2011. crossref

L. R. Dung, C. E. Chen, and H. F. Yuan, “A robust, intelligent CC-CV fast charger for aging lithium batteries,” in Proceeding of 2016 IEEE 25th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2016, pp. 268–273. crossref

Amin, K. Ismail, A. Nugroho, and S. Kaleg, “Passive balancing battery management system using MOSFET internal resistance as balancing resistor,” in Proceeding of 2017 International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (ICSEEA), 2017, pp. 151–155. crossref

M. Brandl, H. Gall, M. Wenger, V. Lorentz, M. Giegerich, F. Baronti, G. Fantechi, L. Fanucci, R. Roncella, R. Saletti, S. Saponara, A. Thaler, M. Cifrain, and W. Prochazka, “Batteries and battery management systems for electric vehicles,” in Proceeding of 2012 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2012, pp. 971–976. crossref

M. Daowd, M. Antoine, N. Omar, P. Lataire, P. Van Den Bossche, and J. Van Mierlo, “Battery management systembalancing modularization based on a single switched capacitor and bi-directional DC/DC converter with the auxiliary battery,” Energies, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 2897–2937, 2014. crossref

T. A. Stuart and W. Zhu, “Fast Equalization for Large Lithium Ion Batteries,” IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 27–31, July 2009. crossref

T. A. Stuart and W. Zhu, “Modularized battery management for large lithium ion cells,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 196, no. 1, pp. 458–464, 2011. crossref

J.-C. Lin, “Development of a two-staged balancing scheme for charging lithium iron cells in series,” IET Electr. Syst. Transp., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 145–152, 2016. crossref

J. C. M. Lin, “Development of a new battery management system with an independent balance module for electrical motorcycles,” Energies, vol. 10, no. 9, 2017. crossref

W. Shen, T. T. Vo, and A. Kapoor, “Charging algorithms of lithium-ion batteries: An overview,” in Proceeding of 2012 7th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), 2012, pp. 1567–1572. crossref

B. Tar and A. Fayed, “An overview of the fundamentals of battery chargers,” in Proceeding of 2016 IEEE 59th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS), October 2017, pp. 16–19. crossref

C.-H. Lin, C.-L. Chen, Y.-H. Lee, S.-J. Wang, C.-Y. Hsieh, H.-W. Huang, and K.-H. Chen, “Fast charging technique for LiIon battery charger,” in Proceeding of 2008 15th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2008, pp. 618–621. crossref

A. Kuperman, U. Levy, J. Goren, A. Zafranski, and A. Savernin, “High power Li-Ion battery charger for electric vehicle,” in Proceeding of 2011 7th International Conference-Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), June 2011, pp. 342–347. crossref

S. O. Yong and N. A. Rahim, “Development of on-off duty cycle control with zero computational algorithm for CC-CV Li ion battery charger,” in Proceeding of 2013 IEEE Conference on Clean Energy and Technology (CEAT), November 2013, pp. 422–426. crossref

C.-C. Hua, H.-R. Chen, and Y.-H. Fang, “Inductive power transmission technology for Li-ion battery charger,” in Proceeding of 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2013, pp. 788– 792. crossref

K. Park, Y. Choi, S. Choi, and R. Kim, “Design consideration of CC-CV controller of LLC resonant converter for Li-ion battery charger,” in Proceeding of 2015 IEEE 2nd International Future Energy Electronics Conference (IFEEC), 2015, pp. 1–6. crossref

R. Kushwaha and B. Singh, “An EV battery charger based on PFC Sheppard Taylor Converter,” in Proceeding of 2016 National Power Systems Conference (NPSC), February 2017, pp. 1–6. crossref

Vicor Corporation, “Design Guide & Applications Manual for Maxi, Mini, Micro Family DC-DC Converter and Accessory Modules,” 2014. online

Vicor Corporation, “Constant Current Control for DC-DC Converters,” 2010. online

Vicor Corporation, “72V Micro Family,” 2017. online

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.